Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the newest member of Enterovirudae, is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. It appears to be emerging as an important virulent neurotropic enterovirus in the upcoming era of poliomyelitis eradication. The illness usually peaks in June or July. EV71 infection may be asymptomatic or may cause diarrhea and rashes. EV71 one of the major causative agents for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system diseases.Direct detection of virus is the mainstay of diagnosis. EV 71 can be isolated from throat and stool specimens, as well as from skin vesicle fuid. PCR testing provides generally greater sensitivity than culture for throat and stool specimens, and viral RNA has also been detected in vesicular fuid, blood and urine. EV 71-specifc serological assays, including tests specific for IgM antibody, have also been developed to assist for early and easier diagnosis of the disease. Storage: Store at -20 °C for one year. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.